We first came across the information about this concept of Random and Sequential,
Abstract and Concrete, through hearing it discussed on a radio program. It immediately
became part of our working tool box in dealing with ourselves and others with whom we
work. We have found it particularly helpful in dealing with couples and with children,
especially those who tend to be labeled as "behavior problems." Because of
requests for more detail after having put this small summary on our site, I did a search
and came up with some other helpful online resources about this tool.
"The Phoenix symbol, Mind Styles and Gregorc Style Delineator are trademarks of
Anthony F. Gregorc, Ph.D. © 1999-2002 Anthony F. Gregorc, Ph.D."
"We are: a Connecticut-based research, training, consulting and publishing firm
established in 1981. Our President, Dr.
Anthony F. Gregorc, is the creator of the Mind Styles Model, originator of the
four style types: Concrete Sequential (CS), Abstract Sequential (AS), Abstract Random (AR)
and Concrete Random (CR), and the developer of the Gregorc Style Delineator."
OK, so after having duly quoted the "TM" and pointed to this
source, let me say that there are other sources online which are more informative
"The Gregorc model is a cognitive model designed to reveal two types of abilities,
perception and ordering. Perceptual abilities, the means through which information is
grasped, translate into two qualities: abstractness and concreteness. Ordering abilities
are the ways the learner organizes information, either sequentially (linearly) or randomly
(non-linearly). Gregorc couples these qualities to form four learning categories:
concrete/sequential (CS), abstract/sequential (AS), abstract/random (AR), and
concrete/random (CR). Although everyone has all four qualities, most people are
predisposed toward one or two of them...........students with a concrete-sequential
dominant learning-style tend to prefer programmed instruction, workbooks, lab manuals,
field trips, and applications. Students with an abstract-sequential dominant
learning-style tend to prefer lectures, books, syllabi, and guided individual study.
Students with a concrete-random learning style prefer independent study, games,
simulations, and problem solving, while students with an abstract-random learning style
prefer television, movies, assignments with reflection time, and group discussions."
- The following information was quoted from: "Personality types and work styles, Bailie Technical Services Inc."
on the site: www.bailie.com
Unfortunately, this site is no longer current,
and the link shown below is no longer accurate. The information, however, is
"Dr. Gregorcs Mind-Styles model ( is based on )how we perceive
information (and) how we use (order) the perceived information:
Concrete Sequential: systematic
Abstract Sequential: research
Concrete Random: instinctual
Abstract Random: absorption
Learning style summaries
Concrete-Sequential (= xSTx)
Organized, stable, productive, perfectionist
Abstract-Sequential (= xNTx)
Precise, conceptual, visionary, opinionated
Concrete-Random (= xSFx)
Curious, hands-on, impulsive, impatient
Abstract-Random (= xNFx)
Spontaneous, adaptable, social, perceptive "
Learning Preferences for each
- The following tables were quoted from: http://www.bow.k12.nh.us/rmann/learning_styles.htm
Unfortunately, this site is no longer
current, and the address is no longer accurate.
The information, however, is
still quite valid.
|Concrete Sequentials prefer:
||Order and quiet
Know the accepted way of doing something
Can apply ideas in a practical, hands-on way
Are given approval for specific work done
|Abstract Sequentials prefer:
||Lecture and reading
Follow traditional procedures
Are respected for intellectual ability
|Abstract Randoms prefer:
Assignments with room for interpretation
Balance of social activities and work
Are given personal attention and emotional support
|Concrete Randoms prefer:
Trial and error approach
Brainstorming and open-ended activities
Produce real, but creative, products
Original and unique approaches to problem solving
The different styles struggle with:
Gregorc's Mind Style
Open ended assignments and "what if" questions
Dealing with opposing views
Taking new approaches
Interpreting abstract ideas
Seeing the forest
Working cooperatively in groups
Taking risks or facing the unpredictable
Open ended problems
Placing grades in perspective
|Abstract Random stretches:
Attending to details and giving exact answers
Working within time limits
Concentrating on one task at a time
Expecting less emotional response from others
|Concrete Random stretches:
||Pacing and meeting time
Choosing one answer
Keeping detailed records
Accepting others ideas without showing another way
Accepting when change is impossible
Needs and enjoys structured situations.
Likes to work with hands-on projects.
Likes things to be ordered and arranged in specific ways.
Likes clear and definite directions.
Is always "busy", looking for constructive things to do, cant sit still
Is a natural organizer.
Prefers to do things step by step.
Is a natural editor, can take anything and make it better.
Has a great fear of being wrong.
Reads avidly for information and ideas logically
Needs a quiet environment to think and work.
Likes to debate about ideas and controversial issues.
Likes to learn just to learn - self-directed.
Gathers information and analyzes ideas.
Strives for intellectual recognition.
Thinks in a structured, logical and organized way.
Fears appearing foolish or uninformed.
Dislikes routine procedures and orderliness.
Is extremely sensitive to his/her own and others feelings.
Is flexible, accepting and responds easily to change.
Learns well through discussion and sharing of ideas.
Is usually involved in many projects or interest at one time.
Is focused on friends and relationships.
Has a fear of not being liked.
Is highly curious.
Finds out-of-the-ordinary answers to problems.
Seems driven to say or do things in a way others have not.
Is a risk-taker.
Likes to discover his/her own way of doing things; must test things for self.
Is extremely independent and competitive with self.
Prefers to investigate and experiment; enjoys hands-on experimenting.
Skips steps and details.
Shows original creativity; has varied and unusual ideas.
Has multiple projects going at once.
Finds possibilities, creates change.
Is notorious for not reading directions or instructions.
Please do not hesitate to write to us if you would like to dialogue about this
very useful tool: firstname.lastname@example.org
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